To the Congress of the United States:
On March 2nd I sent to Congress a Civil Service Reform proposal to enable the Federal government to improve its service to the American people.
Today I am submitting another part of my comprehensive proposal to reform the Federal personnel management system through Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1978. The plan will reorganize the Civil Service Commission and thereby create new institutions to increase the effectiveness of management and strengthen the protection of employee rights.
The Civil Service Commission has acquired inherently conflicting responsibilities: to help manage the Federal Government and to protect the rights of Federal employees. It has done neither job well. The Plan would separate the two functions.
OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
The positive personnel management tasks of the government—such as training, productivity programs, examinations, and pay and benefits administration—would be the responsibility of an Office of Personnel Management. Its Director, appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, would be responsible for administering Federal personnel matters except for Presidential appointments. The Director would be the government's principal representative in Federal labor relations matters.
MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD
The adjudication and prosecution responsibilities of the Civil Service Commission will be performed by the Merit Systems Protection Board. The Board will be headed by a bipartisan panel of three members appointed to six-year, staggered terms. This Board would be the first independent and institutionally impartial Federal agency solely for the protection of Federal employees.
The Plan will create, within the Board, a Special Counsel to investigate and prosecute political abuses and merit system violations. Under the civil service reform legislation now being considered by the Congress, the Counsel would have power to investigate and prevent reprisals against employees who report illegal acts—the so-called "whistleblowers." The Counsel would be appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.
FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY
An Executive Order now vests existing labor-management relations in a parttime Federal Labor-Relations Council, comprised of three top government managers; other important functions are assigned to the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Labor-Management Relations. This arrangement is defective because the Council members are part-time, they come exclusively from the ranks of management and their jurisdiction is fragmented.
The Plan I submit today would consolidate the central policy-making functions in labor-management relations now divided between the Council and the Assistant Secretary into one Federal Labor Relations Authority. The Authority would be composed of three full-time members appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. Its General Counsel, also appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, would present unfair labor practice complaints. The Plan also provides for the continuance of the Federal Service Impasses Panel within the Authority to resolve negotiating impasses between Federal employee unions and agencies.
The cost of replacing the Civil Service Commission can be paid by our present resources. The reorganization itself would neither increase nor decrease the costs of personnel management throughout the government. But taken together with the substantive reforms I have proposed, this Plan will greatly improve the government's ability to manage programs, speed the delivery of Federal services to the public, and aid in executing other reorganizations I will propose to the Congress, by improving Federal personnel management.
Each of the provisions of this proposed reorganization would accomplish one or more of the purposes set forth in 5 U.S.C. 901(a). No functions are abolished by the Plan, but the offices referred to in 5 U.S.C. 5109(b) and 5 U.S.C. 1103(d) are abolished. The portions of the Plan providing for the appointment and pay for the head and one or more officers of the Office of Personnel Management, the Merit Systems Protection Board, the Federal Labor Relations Authority and the Federal Service Impasses Panel, are necessary to carry out the reorganization. The rates of compensation are comparable to those for similar positions within the Executive Branch.
I am confident that this Plan and the companion civil service reform legislation will both lead to more effective protection of Federal employees' legitimate rights and a more rewarding workplace. At the same time the American people will benefit from a better managed, more productive and more efficient Federal Government.
The White House,
May 23, 1978.
REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 2 OF 1978
Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, May 23, 1978, pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 9 of Title 5 of the United States Code.
PART I. OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
SECTION 101. Establishment of the office of Personnel Management and its Director and Other Matters. There is hereby established as an independent establishment in the Executive Branch, the Office of Personnel Management (the "Office"). The head of the Office shall be the Director of the Office of Personnel Management (the "Director"), who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall be compensated at the rate now or hereafter provided for level II of the Executive Schedule. The position referred to in 5 U.S.C. 5109(b) is hereby abolished.
SECTION 102. Transfer of Functions. Except as otherwise specified in this Plan, all functions vested by statute in the United States Civil Service Commission, or the Chairman of said Commission, or the Boards of Examiners established by 5 U.S.C. 1105 are hereby transferred to the Director of the Office of Personnel Management.
SECTION 103. Deputy Director and Associate Directors.
(a) There shall be within the Office a Deputy Director who shall be appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and who shall be compensated at the rate now or hereafter provided for level III of the Executive Schedule. The Deputy Director shall perform such functions as the Director may from time to time prescribe and shall act as Director during the absence or disability of the Director or in the event of a vacancy in the Office of the Director.
(b) There shall be within the Office not more than five Associate Directors, who shall be appointed by the Director in the excepted service, shall have such titles as the Director shall from time to time determine, and shall receive compensation at the rate now or hereafter provided for level IV of the Executive Schedule.
SECTION 104. Functions of the Director. The functions of the Director shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
(a) Aiding the President, as the President may request, in preparing such rules as the President prescribes, for the administration of civilian employment now within the jurisdiction of the United States Civil Service Commission;
(b) Advising the President, as the President may request, on any matters pertaining to civilian employment now within the jurisdiction of the United States Civil Service Commission;
(c) Executing, administering and enforcing the Civil Service rules and regulations of the President and the Office and the statutes governing the same, and other activities of the Office including retirement and classification activities except to the extent such functions remain vested in the Merit Systems Protection Board pursuant to Section 202 of this Plan, or are transferred to the Special Counsel pursuant to Section 204 of this Plan;
(d) Conducting or otherwise providing for studies and research for the purpose of assuring improvements in personnel management, and recommending to the President actions to promote an efficient Civil Service and a systematic application of the merit system principles, including measures relating to the selection, promotion, transfer, performance, pay, conditions of service, tenure, and separations of employees; and
(e) Performing the training responsibilities now performed by the United States Civil Service Commission as set forth in 5 U.S.C. Chapter 41.
SECTION 105. Authority to Delegate Functions. The Director may delegate, from time to time, to the head of any agency employing persons in the competitive service, the performance of all or any part of those functions transferred under this Plan to the Director which relate to employees, or applicants for employment, of such agency.
PART II. MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD
SECTION 201. Merit Systems Protection Board.
(a) The United States Civil Service Commission is hereby redesignated the Merit Systems Protection Board. The Commissioners of the United States Civil Service Commission are hereby redesignated as members of the Merit Systems Protection Board (the "Board").
(b) The Chairman of the Board shall be its chief executive and administrative officer. The position of Executive Director, established by 5 U.S.C. 1103(d), is hereby abolished.
SECTION 202. Functions of the Merit Systems Protection Board and Related Matters.
(a) There shall remain with the Board the hearing, adjudication, and appeals functions of the United States Civil Service Commission specified in 5 U.S.C. 1104 (b) (4) (except hearings, adjudications and appeals with respect to examination ratings), and also found in the following statutes:
(i) 5 U.S.C. 1504-1507, 7325, 5335, 7521, 7701 and 8347(d);
(ii) 38 U.S.C. 2023
(b) There shall remain with the Board the functions vested in the United States Civil Service Commission, or its Chairman, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 1104(a)(5) and (b) (4) to enforce decisions rendered pursuant to the authorities described in Subsection (a) of this Section.
(c) Any member of the Board may request from the Director, in connection with a matter then pending before the Board for adjudication, an advisory opinion concerning interpretation of rules, regulations, or other policy directives promulgated by the Office of Personnel Management.
(d) Whenever the interpretation or application of a rule, regulation, or policy directive of the Office of Personnel Management is at issue in any hearing, adjudication, or appeal before the Board, the Board shall promptly notify the Director, and the Director shall have the right to intervene in such proceedings.
(e) The Board shall designate individuals to chair performance rating boards established pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 4305.
(f) The Chairman of the Board shall designate representatives to chair boards of review established pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 3383(b).
(g) The Board may from time to time conduct special studies relating to the Civil Service, and to other merit systems in the Executive Branch and report to the President and the Congress whether the public interest in a work force free of personnel practices prohibited by law or regulations is being adequately protected. In carrying out this function the Board shall make such inquiries as may be necessary, and, to the extent permitted by law, shall have access to personnel records or information collected by the Office of Personnel Management and may require additional reports from other agencies as needed. The Board shall make such recommendations to the President and the Congress as it deems appropriate.
(h) The Board may delegate the performance of any of its administrative functions to any officer or employee of the Board.
(i) The Board shall have the authority to prescribe such regulations as may be necessary for the performance of its functions. The Board shall not issue advisory opinions. The Board may issue rules and regulations, consistent with statutory requirements, defining its review procedures, including the time limits within which an appeal must be filed and the rights and responsibilities of the parties to an appeal. All regulations of the Board shall be published in the FEDERAL REGISTER.
SECTION 203. Savings Provision. The Board shall accept appeals from agency actions effected prior to the effective date of this Plan. On the effective date of Part II of this Plan, proceedings then before the Federal Employee Appeals Authority shall continue before the Board; proceedings then before the Appeals Review Board and proceedings then before the United States Civil Service Commission on appeal from decisions of the Appeals Review Board shall continue before the Board; other employee appeals before boards or other bodies pursuant to law or regulation shall continue to be processed pursuant to those laws or regulations. Nothing in this section shall affect the right of a Federal employee to judicial review under applicable law.
SECTION 204. The Special Counsel. (a) There shall be a Special Counsel to the Board appointed for a term of four years by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, who shall be compensated as now or hereafter provided for level IV of the Executive Schedule.
(b) There are hereby transferred to the Special Counsel all functions with respect to investigations relating to violations of 5 U.S.C. Chapter 15; 5 U.S.C. Subchapter III of Chapter 73 (Political Activities); and 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(4)(F) (public information).
(c) The Special Counsel may investigate, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 1303, allegations of personnel practices which are prohibited by law or regulation.
(d) When in the judgment of the Special Counsel, such personnel practices exist, he shall report his findings and recommendations to the Chairman of the Merit Systems Protection Board, the agency affected, and to the Office of Personnel Management, and may report such findings to the President.
(e) When in the judgment of the Special Counsel, the results of an investigation would warrant the taking of disciplinary action against an employee who is within the jurisdiction of the Board, the Special Counsel shall prepare charges against such employee and present them with supporting documentation to the Board. Evidence supporting the need for disciplinary action against a Presidential appointee shall be submitted by the Special Counsel to the President.
(f) The Special Counsel may appoint personnel necessary to assist in the performance of his functions.
(g) The Special Counsel shall have the authority to prescribe rules and regulations relating to the receipt and investigation of matters under his jurisdiction. Such regulations shall be published in the
(h) The Special Counsel shall not issue advisory opinions.
PART III. FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY
SECTION 301. Establishment of the Federal Labor Relations Authority.
(a) There is hereby established, as an independent establishment in the Executive Branch, the Federal Labor Relations Authority (the "Authority"). The Authority shall be composed of three members, one of whom shall be Chairman, not more than two of whom may be adherents of the same political party, and none of whom may hold another office or position in the Government of the United States except where provided by law or by the President.
(b) Members of the Authority shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The President shall designate one member to serve as Chairman of the Authority, who shall be compensated at the rate now or hereafter provided for level III of the Executive Schedule. The other members shall be compensated at the rate now or hereafter provided for level IV of the Executive Schedule.
(c) The initial members of the Authority shall be appointed as follows: one member for a term of two years; one member for a term of three years; and the Chairman for a term of four years. Thereafter, each member shall be appointed for a term of four years. An individual chosen to fill a vacancy shall be appointed for the unexpired term of the member replaced.
(d) The Authority shall make an annual report on its activities to the President for transmittal to Congress.
SECTION 302. Establishment of the General Counsel of the Authority. There shall be a General Counsel of the Authority, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate for a term of four years, and who shall be compensated at the rate now or hereafter provided for level V of the Executive Schedule. The General Counsel shall perform such duties as the Authority shall from time to time prescribe, including but not limited to the duty of determining and presenting facts required by the Authority in order to decide unfair labor practice complaints.
SECTION 303. The Federal Service Impasses Panel. The Federal Service Impasses Panel, established under Executive Order 11491, as amended, (the "Panel") shall continue, and shall be a distinct organizational entity within the Authority.
SECTION 304. Functions. Subject to the provisions of Section 306, the following functions are hereby transferred: (a) To the Authority(1) The functions of the Federal Labor Relations Council pursuant to Executive Order 11491, as amended;
(2) The functions of the Civil Service Commission under Sections 4(a) and 6 (e) of Executive Order 11491, as amended;
(3) The functions of the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Labor-Management Relations, under Executive Order 11491, as amended, except for those functions related to alleged violations of the standards of conduct for labor organizations pursuant to Section 6(a) (4) of said Executive Order; and,
(b) to the Panel—the functions and authorities of the Federal Service Impasses Panel, pursuant to Executive Order 11491, as amended.
SECTION 305. Authority Decisions. The decisions of the Authority on any matter within its jurisdiction shall be final and not subject to judicial review.
SECTION 306. Other Provisions. Unless and until modified, revised, or revoked, all policies, regulations, and procedures established, and decisions issued, under Executive Order 11491, as amended, shall remain in full force and effect. There is hereby expressly reserved to the President the power to modify the functions transferred to the Federal Labor Relations Authority and the Federal Service Impasses Panel pursuant to Section 304 of this Plan.
SECTION 307. Savings Provision. All matters which relate to the functions transferred by Section 304 of this Plan, and which are pending on the effective date of the establishment of the Authority before the Federal Labor Relations Council, the Vice Chairman of the Civil Service Commission, or the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Labor-Management Relations shall continue before the Authority under such rules and procedures as the Authority shall prescribe. All such matters pending on the effective date of the establishment of the Authority before the Panel, shall continue before the Panel under such rules and procedures as the Panel shall prescribe.
PART IV. GENERAL PROVISIONS
SECTION 401. Incidental Transfer. So much of the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with the functions transferred under this Plan, as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine, shall be transferred to the appropriate agency, or component at such time or times as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall provide, except that no such unexpended balances transferred shall be used for purposes other than those for which the appropriation was originally made. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall provide for terminating the affairs of any agencies abolished herein and for such further measures and dispositions as such Director deems necessary to effectuate the purposes of this Reorganization Plan.
SECTION 402. Interim Officers.
(a) The President may authorize any persons who, immediately prior to the effective date of this Plan, held positions in the Executive Branch of the Government, to act as Director of the Office of Personnel Management, the Deputy Director of the Office of Personnel Management, the Special Counsel, the Chairman and other members of the Federal Labor Relations Authority, the Chairman and other members of the Federal Service Impasses Panel, or the General Counsel of the Authority, until those offices are for the first time filled pursuant to the provisions of this Reorganization Plan or by recess appointment, as the case may be.
(b) The President may authorize any such person to receive the compensation attached to the Office in respect of which that person so serves, in lieu of other compensation from the United States.
SECTION 403. Effective Date. The provisions of this Reorganization Plan shall become effective at such time or times, on or before January 1, 1979, as the President shall specify, but not sooner than the earliest time allowable under Section 906 of Title 5, United States Code.