Differences in Appropriations Proposed by the President and Passed by Congress

 

President
Defense (Average)
Non-Defense (Annual)
(Difference)
Eisenhower
-4.6 -0.3 -5.3
Eisenhower
-1.0 0.1 -1.0
Kennedy/Johnson
-2.4 -7.4 -9.3
Johnson
1.0 -10.4 -10.9
Nixon
-16.0 2.5 -12.8
Nixon/Ford
-9.2 25.4 15.8
Carter
9.8 -32.3 -21.6
Reagan
8.9 5.6 16.4
Reagan
2.7 19.1 21.9
Bush
-2.4 4.9 2.5
Clinton
2.5 -24.3 -21.8

 

Source(s)

Lyn Ragsdale, Presidential Politics (Boston:Houghton Mifflin, 1993), 329 and Lyn Ragsdale, Vital Statistics on the Presidency (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1998), 359.