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Gerald R. Ford: Executive Order 11870—Environmental Safeguards on Activities for Animal Damage Control on Federal Lands
Gerald
Gerald R. Ford
Executive Order 11870—Environmental Safeguards on Activities for Animal Damage Control on Federal Lands
July 18, 1975
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By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, and in furtherance of the purposes and policies of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the provisions of Section 1 of the Act of March 2, 1931 (46 Stat. 1468, 7 U.S.C. 426) and the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (87 Stat. 884, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), Executive Order No. 11643 of February 8, 1972, is amended to read as follows:

"Section 1. It is the policy of the Federal Government, consistent with the authorities cited above, to:

(1) Manage the public lands to protect all animal resources thereon in the manner most consistent with the public trust in which such lands are held.

(2) Conduct all mammal or bird damage control programs in a manner which contributes to the maintenance of environmental quality, and to the conservation and protection of the Nation's wildlife resources, including predatory animals.

(3) Restrict the use on public lands and in Federal predator control programs of any chemical toxicant for the purpose of killing predatory animals or birds which would have secondary poisoning effects.

(4) Restrict the use of chemical toxicants for the purpose of killing predatory or other mammals or birds in Federal programs and on Federal lands in a manner which will balance the need for a responsible animal damage control program consistent with the other policies set forth in this Order; and

(5) assure that where chemical toxicants or devices are used pursuant to Section 3 (b), only those combinations of toxicants and techniques will be used which best serve human health and safety and which minimize the use of toxicants and best protect nontarget wildlife species and those individual predatory animals and birds which do not cause damage, consistent with the policies of this Order."

"Sec. 2. Definitions. As used in this Order the term:

(a) "Federal lands" means all real property owned by or leased to the Federal Government, excluding (1) lands administered by the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to his trust responsibilities for Indian affairs, and (2) real property located in metropolitan areas.

(b) "Agencies" means the departments, agencies and establishments of the Executive branch of the Federal Government.

(c) "Chemical toxicant" means any chemical substance which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to or injected into the body, in relatively small amounts, by its chemical action may cause significant bodily malfunction, injury, illness, or death, to animals or to man.

(d) "Predatory mammal or bird" means any mammal or bird which habitually preys upon other animals, birds, reptiles or fish.

(e) "Secondary poisoning effect" means the result attributable to a chemical toxicant which, after being ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to or injected into, a mammal, bird, reptile or fish, is retained in its tissue, or otherwise retained in such a manner and quantity that the tissue itself or retaining part if thereafter ingested by man, mammal, bird, reptile or fish, produces the effects set forth in paragraph (c) of this Section.

(f) "Field use" means use on lands not in, or immediately adjacent to, occupied buildings."

"Sec. 3. Restrictions on Use of Toxicants. (a) Heads of agencies shall take such action as is necessary to prevent on any Federal lands under their jurisdiction, or in any Federal program of mammal or bird damage control under their jurisdiction:

(1) the field use of any chemical toxicant for the purpose of killing a predatory mammal or bird; or

(2) the field use of any chemical toxicant which causes any secondary poisoning effect for the purpose of killing mammals, birds, or reptiles.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this Section, the head of any agency may authorize the emergency use on Federal lands under his jurisdiction of a chemical toxicant for the purpose of killing predatory mammals or birds, or of a chemical toxicant which causes a secondary poisoning effect for the purpose of killing other mammals, birds, or reptiles, but only if in each specific case he makes a written finding, following consultation with the Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, and Health, Education, and Welfare, and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, that an emergency exists that cannot be dealt with by means which do not involve use of chemical toxicants, and that such use is essential:

(1) to the protection of the health or safety of human life;

(2) to the preservation of one or more wildlife species threatened with extinction, or likely within the foreseeable future to become so threatened; or

(3) to the prevention of substantial irretrievable damage to nationally significant natural resources.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this Section, the head of an agency may authorize the use, on an experimental basis, of sodium cyanide to control coyote and other predatory mammal or bird damage to livestock on Federal lands or in Federal programs, provided that such use is in accordance with all applicable laws and regulations, including those relating to the use of chemical toxicants, and continues for no more than one year."

"Sec. 4. Rules for Implementation of Order. Heads of agencies shall issue such rules or regulations as may be necessary and appropriate to carry. out the provisions and policy of this Order."

GERALD R. FORD
The White House,
July 18, 1975.



Citation: Gerald R. Ford: "Executive Order 11870—Environmental Safeguards on Activities for Animal Damage Control on Federal Lands," July 18, 1975. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=23940.
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