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  Presidential Signing Statements

  Hoover - Obama

Frequently Asked Questions... by John T. Woolley
• What is a Signing Statement?
• Is George W. Bush the first President to issue signing statements?
• I’ve searched your website for George W. Bush’s signing statements and only find about 140. The Boston Globe said there were 750. Where are the rest of them?
• Is it true that George W. Bush has issued many more signing statements than any other president?
• What kind of claims does Bush make in his signing statements that has people upset?
• How can I quickly locate a lot of the controversial signing statements?
• Didn’t the American Bar Association declare that Bush’s use of signing statements was unconstitutional?
• What does the ABA Task Force say the president should do if he thinks a bill passed by congress includes unconstitutional provisions?
• Is this a liberal-conservative issue? Are there any liberals that side with Bush?
Select Year      
President Date Title
George W. Bush January 10, 2002 Statement on Signing the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2002
George W. Bush January 10, 2002 Statement on Signing the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002
George W. Bush January 10, 2002 Statement on Signing the Department of Defense and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States Act, 2002
George W. Bush January 16, 2002 Statement on Signing the Investor and Capital Markets Fee Relief Act
George W. Bush March 27, 2002 Statement on Signing the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002
George W. Bush May 13, 2002 Statement on Signing the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002
George W. Bush May 14, 2002 Statement on Signing the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002
George W. Bush June 14, 2002 Statement on Signing the Export-Import Bank Reauthorization Act of 2002
George W. Bush June 25, 2002 Statement on Signing Legislation To Implement International Conventions Against Terrorism
George W. Bush June 28, 2002 Statement on Signing the Small Business Paperwork Relief Act of 2002
George W. Bush July 30, 2002 Statement on Signing the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
George W. Bush August 23, 2002 Statement on Signing Legislation on the Codification of Laws Related to Public Buildings, Property, and Works
George W. Bush September 18, 2002 Statement on Signing the John F. Kennedy Center Plaza Authorization Act of 2002
George W. Bush September 30, 2002 Statement on Signing the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003
George W. Bush September 30, 2002 Statement on Signing a Continuing Resolution for Fiscal Year 2003
George W. Bush October 11, 2002 Statement on Signing the Vicksburg National Military Park Boundary Modification Act of 2002
George W. Bush October 16, 2002 Statement on Signing the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002
George W. Bush October 21, 2002 Statement on Signing the Sudan Peace Act
George W. Bush October 23, 2002 Statement on Signing the Military Construction Appropriation Act, 2003
George W. Bush October 23, 2002 Statement on Signing the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2003
George W. Bush October 23, 2002 Statement on Signing the Russian Democracy Act of 2002
George W. Bush October 26, 2002 Statement on Signing the Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act of 2002
George W. Bush October 29, 2002 Statement on Signing the Help America Vote Act of 2002
George W. Bush October 30, 2002 Statement on Signing the Niagara Falls National Heritage Area Study Act
George W. Bush November 2, 2002 Statement on Signing the 21st Century Department of Justice Appropriations Authorization Act
George W. Bush November 5, 2002 Statement on Signing Legislation To Provide for Improvement of Federal Education Research, Statistics, Evaluation, Information, and Dissemination, and for Other Purposes
George W. Bush November 7, 2002 Statement on Signing the Accountability of Tax Dollars Act of 2002
George W. Bush November 7, 2002 Statement on Signing the Accountability of Tax Dollars Act of 2002
George W. Bush November 25, 2002 Statement on Signing the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002
George W. Bush November 25, 2002 Statement on Signing the Homeland Security Act of 2002
George W. Bush November 27, 2002 Statement on Signing the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003
George W. Bush December 2, 2002 Statement on Signing the Bob Stump National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003
George W. Bush December 17, 2002 Statement on Signing the E-Government Act of 2002
George W. Bush December 19, 2002 Statement on Signing Legislation To Reauthorize the Hydrographic Services Improvement Act of 1998 and for Other Purposes
George W. Bush December 19, 2002 Statement on Signing the National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 2002

Q:  What is a Signing Statement?

A:  A “Signing Statement” is a written comment issued by a President at the time of signing legislation.  Often signing statements merely comment on the bill signed, saying that it is good legislation or meets some pressing needs.  The more controversial statements involve claims by presidents that they believe some part of the legislation is unconstitutional and therefore they intend to ignore it or to implement it only in ways they believe is constitutional.  Some critics argue that the proper presidential action is either to veto the legislation (Constitution, Article I, section 7) or to “faithfully execute” the laws (Constitution, Article II, section 3).

Q:  Is George W. Bush the first President to issue signing statements?

A:  NO.  Several sources trace “signing statements” back to James Monroe.  Interesting early statements that include discussions about presidential doubt about legislation and the issue of how the president should proceed are found from Andrew Jackson, John Tyler, James K. Polk, and Ulysses Grant.  A brief overview can be found in the ABA Task Force cited below.

Monroe’s messages did not look like what are today considered “signing statement.”  Rather he informed Congress in a message January 17, 1822, that he had resolved what he saw as a confusion in the law in a way that the thought was consistent with his constitutional authority.  http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=66281

Even more forcefully, Monroe sent another message dated April 6, 1822, (that refers to his January 17, 1822 message as having “imperfectly explained” his concerns) stating “If the right of the President to fill these original vacancies by the selection of officers from any branch of the whole military establishment was denied, he would be compelled to place in them officers of the same grade whose corps had been reduced, and they with them. The effect, therefore, of the law as to those appointments would be to legislate into office men who had been already legislated out of office, taking from the President all agency in their appointment. Such a construction would not only be subversive of the obvious principles of the Constitution, but utterly inconsistent with the spirit of the law itself, since it would provide offices for a particular grade, and fix every member of that grade in those offices, at a time when every other grade was reduced, and among them generals and other officers of the highest merit. It would also defeat every object of selection, since colonels of infantry would be placed at the head of regiments of artillery, a service in which they might have had no experience, and for which they might in consequence be unqualified.”  http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=66303

In May 1830, Andrew Jackson wrote an message to the House stating his understanding of the limits of an appropriation:  “the phraseology of the section which appropriates the sum of $8,000 for the road from Detroit to Chicago may be construed to authorize the application of the appropriation for the continuance of the road beyond the limits of the Territory of Michigan, I desire to be understood as having approved this bill with the understanding that the road authorized by this section is not to be extended beyond the limits of the said Territory.”  http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=66775

Tyler, issued a prototypical “reluctant” signing statement, in which he signs a piece of legislation concerning legislative apportionment while announcing, for the record, that he thinks it is unconstitutional:  http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=67545

Polk in 1848 similarly warned that while he was signing legislation that established a government in the Oregon territory prohibiting slavery, that he would not have signed similar legislation that involved New Mexico and California south of the “Missouri Compromise Line”:  http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=68034

Q:  I’ve searched your website for George W. Bush’s signing statements and only find about 140.  The Boston Globe said there were 750.  Where are the rest of them?

A:  In an article published on April 30, 2006, the Globe wrote that “President Bush has quietly claimed the authority to disobey more than 750 laws enacted since he took office.”  In a clarification issued May 4, 2006, the Globe note that Bush had not really challenged 750 bills (which would have implied 750 signing statements), but “has claimed the authority to bypass more than 750 statutes, which were provisions contained in about 125 bills.” 

Q:  Is it true that George W. Bush has issued many more signing statements than any other president?

A:  No, Bill Clinton issued many more signing statements.  The controversy is about the kind of signing statements Bush has issued.

Q:  What kind of claims does Bush make in his signing statements that has people upset?

A:  In one frequently used phrase, George W. Bush has routinely asserted that he will not act contrary to the constitutional provisions that direct the president to “supervise the unitary executive branch.”  This formulation can be found first in a signing statement of Ronald Reagan, and it was repeated several times by George H. W. Bush.  Basically, Bush asserts that Congress cannot pass a law that undercuts the constitutionally granted authorities of the President. 

Q:  How can I quickly locate a lot of the controversial signing statements?

A:  In our search function for all presidential papers, search on:  “my constitutional authority” OR “unitary executive”.  This will return about 250 documents.  Most of them, from Ronald Reagan to the present are signing statements—but there are several veto messages sprinkled among them.

Q:  Didn’t the American Bar Association declare that Bush’s use of signing statements was unconstitutional?

A:  In July 2006, an ABA “Blue Ribbon Task Force”—not “The ABA”—found that these presidential assertions of constitutional authority “undermine the rule of law and our constitutional system of separation of powers.”  The report of the bipartisan commission, which relied on the American Presidency Project database, can be found here:  http://www.abanet.org/media/docs/signstatereport.pdf

Q:  What does the ABA Task Force say the president should do if he thinks a bill passed by congress includes unconstitutional provisions?

A:  Veto the bill. 

Q:  Is this a liberal-conservative issue?  Are there any liberals that side with Bush?

A:  An important legal statement in support of the use of signing statements was developed by Bernard Nussbaum, Counsel to President Clinton in 1993 (i.e. while the Democrats still had Congressional majorities).  Nussbaum stated that the Department of Justice had advised three prior presidents that the Constitution provided authority to decline to enforce a clearly unconstitutional law.  The entire 1993 memo may be found here:  http://www.usdoj.gov/olc/signing.htm

In an essay published in the Boston Globe on August 9, 2006, liberal scholar Lawrence Tribe wrote that signing statements are “informative and constitutionally unobjectionable.”  Tribe writes that what is objectionable is “the president’s failure to face the political music by issuing a veto and subjecting that veto to the possibility of an override in Congress.”  An eventual challenge to a president should come not to the statement, but to the fact that a president failed to enforce a law or that his actions resulted in harm to others.  In the latter case, Tribe has in mind Presidential directives about how to treat “unlawful combatants.”  Tribe’s essay can be found here:  http://www.boston.com/
 
 
 

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